Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Fermented Sausage can make it taste better?

Starter Culture - Salami Makings Secret Essential - Sausages Made ...
Fermentation was discovered in 1857, the science beyond it is amazing and interesting. Starter culture uses the same idea by having the bacteria ferment and make a culture of bacteria in the subject of matter, it is used in milk to make yogurt and cheese, so it is very common. It is also used in meats like chorizo and pepperoni because it is able to change the composition of the fatty acids in the meats, to have a taste so Delicious. One interesting thing about some cultures, that when sour bread is being made, there is a bacteria in the sourdough culture that can produce a type of fatty acid that can increase the bread's resistance to mold. It not known how they are able to do it because there hasn't been a clear study using bacteria free culture." bacterium Latilactobacillus sakei; in another preparation, they used both L. sakei and Staphylococcus carnosus. Both of these samples were made in such a way as to prevent contamination from bacteria in the environment. They treated the third sample -- the control -- with an antibiotic solution to eliminate the microbes naturally living within the sausage. Over the course of 20 days, they checked the sausages and found a markedly different profile for microbe-free sausage compared to the sausage containing either of the two microbial cultures." With this experiment they were able to figure out the difference of the 2 bacteria and also figure out how it effected the taste

Monday, August 10, 2020

This Man's DNA Is the Oldest in North America

The company Cellular Research Institute (CRI) Genetics decided to trace a man’s ancestry for 55 generations with 99% accuracy. Some of the revealing genetic information such as origins of his black feet ancestors from the pacific island were collected. According to the analysis done to his DNA, Crawford contains genetic information that is part of the mtDNA haplotype B2 group, which originated in Arizona about 17,000 years ago. He appears to be a descendant of Ina, which is a major Native American group in North America. Researchers conclude that Crawford’s DNA matches up with Native Americans by 83% as well as 5% East Asian, 2% South Asian, and less than 1% African. In conclusion, with this finding we are showing how far we come in genetics and how much more we can achieve and learn about our ancester.

Sunday, August 9, 2020

Will your brain stay sharp into your 90s? Certain factors are key.

Can some of us stay sharp during our 90’s? This is a question that researches sought to answer. I remember an interview done by the astrophysicist Neil DeGrasse Tyson to Steven Hawking. During the interview one question got my attention, he asked him what his biggest fear in life was. Hawking responded to lose his mental capacity. For Hawking, he didn’t care much about any other competence but to think critically every day. Beth Snitz a professor of neurology at the University of Pittsburg decided to study what seems to protect us from disease and impairment in our 90s. Her team found that people whose scores were usually normal on thinking and memory test are less likely to have problems with their thinking skills even if they contain amyloid protein plaques (linked to Alzheimer’s disease). Another finding was those with APOE 2 gene mutations were tied to have a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease because they were less likely to develop amyloid plaques as compared to other people who did not have this mutation. Another interesting link to mental deficit was people who suffered from high pulse pressure were linked to an increase in plaques, this is because as you get older the pulse pressure gets higher and is a sign of the blood vessels aging. Overall, our brain is an incredible organ that contains many mysteries in which I hope our scientific community can discover in the future.

Heart Attack Elevates Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence

Research has long supported a link between cancer treatments such as chemotherapy that can weaken the heart and subsequent cardiovascular disease in patients. The effectiveness of modern treatments means “patients are living longer, but they’re also experiencing complications,” says Kathryn Moore, the director of the Cardiovascular Research Center at NYU Langone Health. Far less work has been done investigating how cancer responds in turn to a heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction (MI). A new study by Moore and her colleagues reports that breast cancer patients who experience a heart attack are 60 percent more likely to die from their cancer than patients who don’t. 

The team’s experiments in mice explain why that might be. Tumors in mice that experienced a simulated heart attack grew larger than those in mice that did not, and a subsequent analysis of immune cells taken from bone marrow, plasma, and tumors revealed a large-scale epigenetic reprogramming of their genomes that allowed the cancer to thrive.

Moore says that breast cancer patients will need to be aggressively managed to control for cardiovascular risk, including both medical treatments and lifestyle changes such as exercise.




South Americans in Polynesian Island sooner than we expected?

Peru | Machu Picchu |Cusco | Nazca Lines | andBeyond
Researchers have discovers that south Americans DNA were swapped with the voyagers from an eastern Polynesian island. researchers are concluding that the Polynesian voyage were using a drift wood raft and came across the coast of Peru. The voyage may have been taken at around 800 years ago, even though most researchers thought Asians had voyaged east as early as around 3,500 years ago to relatively close-by western Polynesia, eventually populating eastern Polynesia by around 1,000 years ago without having any contacts with people from South America. They were able to have a computer generation simulation of the voyage, to discover the wind speeds, and direction of travel from south america to the polynesian island. "Ioannidis, of Stanford University, and Moreno-Estrada’s group searched for molecular markers of shared ancestry in DNA of 807 individuals from 17 island populations in Polynesia and 15 Indigenous groups from relatively near Central and South America’s Pacific coast. Genetic data included 166 Rapa Nui inhabitants and 188 individuals from other Pacific islands. All DNA came from present-day people except for samples from four individuals, each from a different site in the Americas. Those ancient individuals lived between around 500 and 7,400 years ago".[1] 



New Links Found Between Autism-Related Social Difficulties and Genetic Modifications


The neuroligin-3 gene is found to have been altered, leading to a reduction in the effect of the oxytocin hormone. This alteration may be the cause for many of the social difficulties in people with autism. While it is caused by multiple factors, this particular alteration could lead scientists toward a treatment to help with the social difficulties faced.

Oxytocin is a hormone that affects mammalian social behavior and interaction. Using mice, the researchers examined how the mutation in the neuroligin-3 gene affected the signaling pathway for oxytocin, and thus how it affected the behavior of the mice in social situations. Researchers are confident that this alteration is reversible with a treatment involving an inhibitor of protein synthesis. In the mice, behavior became normal, which gave scientists hope that this treatment could help people dealing with social difficulties relating to autism. Overall, this study may lead to the elimination of social difficulties in people with autism, which would make for a better quality of life for many.

Article: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/08/200805124054.htm

Related Article: https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-causes-autism

Friday, August 7, 2020

Tiny Genomes May Have Faster Evolutionary Rates

A new link between the mutation rate of DNA and genome size has been found by researchers in Japan and Australia. They found that in prokaryotes, organisms with higher rates of mutation lose genes more rapidly, which shortens their genomes. Prior to this study, it was widely believed that population size determined prokaryotic genome size. Now, population size is thought to only play a part in this phenomenon, as prokaryotes in larger populations have even been found to have evolved shorter genomes.

Scientists conducted this study by looking at the lineages of various prokaryotic organisms. An evolutionary tree was created for each one, where researchers would then find where the strains diverged from one another. After modeling gene loss, they estimated the rate of mutation, pressure, and population size in order to compare it to the amount of genes lost. A majority of the strains had relationships between rate of mutation and gene loss.

Cause and ways in which these losses occurred are still unknown and under evaluation. There could potentially be a survival-related reason as to why prokaryotes speed up their rate of mutation to shorten their genome, but this is unknown as of late. This study has sparked new questions pertaining to prokaryotic genome size and how it may impact them in the future. It could lead to further discovery and explanation in the vast and diverse group known as prokaryotes.