Sunday, November 6, 2016

Multi Drug-Resistant Pathogens

Animals are often given antibiotics in their food or sprayed on them so they ingest it when they clean themselves. The use of antibiotics in animals was thought to prevent disease and therefore produce more healthy livestock. However, pathogens are now becoming resistant to more and more antibiotics. Since the antibiotics are only killing off the pathogens that are not resistant to bacteria,the antibiotic resistant pathogens are thriving and are flourishing. 
A study was performed to find out how resistant they are becoming. Investigators sequenced 11 pathogen's genomes from chickens and the broilers of India. Each pathogen was resistant to at least five antibiotics in the fluoroquinolone, cephalosporin, sulfonamides, and macrolide families.  H. pollorum can be harmful to humans and livestock since it carries a toxin that interferes with the cell cycle. Interference with the cell cycle ultimately leads to cancer. The pathogen is a health concern due to the antibiotic resistance created by the abuse of antibiotics. The consumption of chicken in India and all over the world is becoming more and more prevalent which could lead to more antibiotic resistant bacteria. In the United States, 80% of antibiotics sold are given to livestock. In 2013 alone, 53% of sampled chicken was E. Coli resistant.
Back when it was decided to use antibiotics in livestock it made sense to the farmer/big business because their livestock could possibly live longer. If the pathogens were not making their livestock sick because the chickens and cows and whatever else are pre-treated with antibiotics, the business is making money. The introduction of antibiotics was rather selfish and could lead to more bad than it did good. Initially, it was a good idea but it should have been researched more. Antibiotics is over used in so many cases, even humans. Many people will insist on the prescription of an antibiotic to get better when it is not necessary. The use of antibiotics should be more strict and more limited. All we can do now is stop over-using antibiotics so more pathogens are not antibiotic resistant.

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