Scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have recently tested an experimental mRNA HIV vaccine in mice and non-human primates and found promising results. The tests have shown that it is safe and is effective against HIV-like diseases. Rhesus monkeys received a priming vaccine and multiple boosters which resulted in a 79% lower exposure risk of infection to simian-human immunodeficiency virus when to compared to monkeys who had not received the vaccines. The vaccine works similar to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines by carrying coded instructions for making two key HIV proteins instead of carrying instructions for the coronavirus spike protein. Some mild, temporary side effects were seen such as loss of appetite in the animals who received the vaccines, but the vaccine was highly tolerated. Macaques were immunized weekly for thirteen weeks, and after the thirteen weeks, 2 out of the 7 immunized remained uninfected. The other 5 had a delayed reaction at just after 8 weeks, and those not immunized became infected after three weeks. The scientists are working to refine their vaccine protocol to lower the amount of inoculations needed to produce an immune response. These results are promising to take control of one of the world's most serious health challenges.