According to the article, penicillin is frequently used as a first-line antibiotic since it is efficient against a wide range of bacterial illnesses. Penicillins are a class of antibiotics that work against a wide array of bacteria. Despite this, it is one of the leading causes of drug allergies. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, around 10% of individuals have had an adverse response to penicillin. Researchers now have identified a genetic component to hypersensitivity, which may produce hives, wheezing, arrhythmias, and other symptoms, although it is seldom deadly. Penicillin hypersensitivity may be triggered by a genetic change in an immune system gene that aids the body in differentiating between our own cells and pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. According to Kristi Krebs, a pharmacogenomics researcher at the Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu, the hotspot lies on the major histocompatibility complex gene HLA-B. Recent research has linked significant variances in HLA genes to negative medication effects. Studies have connected one HLA-B variant to adverse responses to the HIV/AIDS drug, abacavir, and another HLA-B variant to allergic reactions to the gout drug, allopurinol. The researchers evaluated more than 600,000 electronic health records for genetic information on patients who self-reported penicillin intolerance for the penicillin study. The researchers employed a number of genetic search techniques to filter through DNA in search of genetic abnormalities that may be connected to the health issue. Their search led them to a particular location on chromosome 6, where they discovered HLA-B*55:01, a variant of HLA. The researchers then compared their findings to 1.12 million individuals of European ancestry in 23andMe's study database and discovered the same connection. A search of smaller datasets of individuals with East Asian, Middle Eastern, and African ancestry showed no evidence of a comparable link, however the sample sizes were too small to be certain. Hopefully, more clarity can be found on the genetic linkage to the hypersensitivity of patients to penicillin.