Wednesday, August 2, 2023

The Genetics Behind Diabetes

 Type 1

Up to 0.4% of children will be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes by the age of 30, making it the third most frequent form of pediatric chronic illness. It is brought on by the autoimmune death of beta cells in the pancreas, which leads to total dependence on insulin from outside sources. A genetic risk ratio of roughly 15 is associated with type 1 diabetes, which is connected to the MHC locus on chromosome 6p21. Type 1 diabetes is tightly clustered in families. This association is supported by a recent study that looked at 1435 multiplex families.

Type 2

The pancreatic beta cells in people with type 2 diabetes are less able to release enough insulin to maintain normal glucose and lipid balance, which is why type 2 diabetes is a condition of relative insulin deficit. Insulin resistance is associated with age, obesity, and less physical activity than normal. The total genetic risk ratio for type 2 diabetes ranges from 2 to 4, which is lower than the risk ratio for type 1 diabetes. The genetic contribution to type 2 diabetes is lower than that of type 1. Genes that are important in type 2 diabetes have been found using genome-wide scanning, with the most promising results occurring on chromosomes 1q21-q24, 2q37, 12q24, and 20. Other linkage areas are now being investigated, and it is possible that in the future novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes may be discovered.

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are hereditary conditions, with type 2 diabetes having a far greater genetic influence. The hereditary risk ratio for type 1 is 15, whereas the risk ratio for type 2 is around 2. There is a possibility that the genes that contribute to type 1 diabetes are distinct from those that contribute to type 2 diabetes. It's possible that distinct groups of genes will define varying levels of risk for diabetes complications.

While doing research about this topic for personal reasons, I came across these two articles (links below) that I felt explained how diabetes types 1 and 2 can be linked to your genetics. In my opinion, the research being done currently on genes being connected to diabetes is crucial in order to understand the disease even more. There is a large percentage of people in the United States who have diabetes type 1 or type 2, so it is important to understand this disease as much as possible.

1 comment:

  1. I always knew that diabetes can be hereditary but I had no idea that type 2 diabetes can have a greater genetic influence than type 1. Im glad that they are doing more research into diabetes and can possibly gain more knowledge about type 1 and type 2 diabetes.