A study presents genome data from 3 individual, who lived in the Late Pleistocene, between 12 and 120 thousand years ago. The oldest individual was excavated in 2010 by Dr. Elizabeth Sawchuk, a bioarcheologist at the University of Alberta, and the other two individuals were excavated by Dr. Jessica Thompson, an anthropologist at Yale University. DNA extraction was less challenging than expected because the fossils were found on rocks inside a cave in Tanzania. Around 50 thousand years ago, an archeological change is seen- people started creating "trade networks". For example, obsidian, a type of stone seen to be used in creating tools, was moved over long distances. With ancient DNA found on the stones, scientists were able to conclude the time around which humans began using and moving obsidians. It's fascinating to learn researchers were able to extract DNA from samples, given Africa's extreme weather destroys DNA. Also, this research explains how "globalization" worked then- people were moving long distances and creating families far from their birthplaces, thus changing genetic landscape.