CRISPR/Cas systems are “gene scissors” in the genome editing of organisms, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. The gene scissors target regions of the DNA and correct any genetic defects. Scientist, Juliana Behler, and her team, along with Dr. Wolfgang Hess identified an enzyme involving the CRISPR/Cas systems. This enzyme is a special pair of RNA scissors that controls CRISPR/Cas systems and gene expression by reading genes and translating their information into proteins. There are different enzymes for different organisms.
CRISPR/Cas systems are found in bacteria. These systems have their own immune system, which they are able to protect themselves from viral intruders. Their RNA molecule must be cut into smaller pieces in order to protect themselves. The enzyme allows for the RNA to be cut. CRISPR/Cas9 systems are an exception, for its host enzyme RNAase III acts as the RNA scissors and allows the RNA molecule to be cut and defend itself from viral intruders.
This technique of “gene scissors” and enzymes can be used at greater standards in other systems.
For more information, refer to the original article.