Eye color is determined by the pigmentation of the iris, with variations ranging from light blue to dark brown. Genes associated with melanin production, transport, and storage influence eye color. The OCA2 and HERC2 genes on chromosome 15 play pivotal roles. The OCA2 gene produces the P protein that affects melanin levels in the iris, while the HERC2 gene controls the expression of OCA2. Other genes like ASIP, IRF4, and TYR also contribute to eye color variation. The inheritance of eye color is more complex than previously believed, as multiple genes are involved. Disorders such as ocular albinism, oculocutaneous albinism, and heterochromia affect eye color due to genetic mutations or developmental issues.