COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a potentially deadly disease which causes inflammation of bronchi within the lungs, leading to chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Large scale genetic studies for COPD have largely been based off genetic information obtained from those of European ancestry. A new tool called PTRS - a gene-based compliment to PRS - has enabled doctors to better predict and assess COPD risk factors for patients of African and Hispanic descent, furthermore, building upon already established genomic data. While PRS looks at direct genotype data, PTRS expands upon that, using linear combinations of genotypes to represent predicted expression levels also known as the transcriptome. This new test introduces a more diverse set of gene variation between races. This in turn allows for more accurate risk analysis for those of non-European (especially African and Hispanic) descent and was found to also predict COPD more effectively in heavy, longtime smokers.