This Study focuses on the ability of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius to survive extreme heat to try and understand overall the ability for specific species of archaea to survive extreme temperatures. S. acidocaldarius has an unusual membrane (phospholipid bilayer). Usually, archaea typically do not generate an outer membrane but in this case, it creates a unique membrane to protect and thrive in extreme heat. It was found that a molecule called calditol is the reason the phospholipid membrane is so unique in this archaea. Through this study, this helps researchers relate and possibly find more clues about other microorganisms that can thrive in extreme temperatures. This could even develop into new medicinal or chemical practices and experiments.